0Shares0000AUCKLAND, New Zealand, September 22 – All Blacks coach Graham Henry on Thursday unveiled his starting lineup for Saturday’s Eden Park showdown with France, while minnows Namibia prepared to face up to the mighty Springboks.Back into the New Zealand team from injuries come superstars Dan Carter and Richie McCaw, while Israel Dagg gets the nod at full-back in preference to Mils Muliaina who is stuck on 98 caps. McCaw in contrast will win his 100th cap in the France game becoming the first All Black to do so.Henry said he was paying no attention to suggestions that France have not selected their best team for Saturday’s game as a loss would see them pitched into the easier half of the quarter-final draw.“History shows the challenge. There have been a lot of World Cup games against France which have been of great interest to New Zealanders and French people and some of them have finished with difficult situations to handle,” Henry said.“This French side will be very difficult to beat. They are a big side, very physical, got a very mature pack and they have some outstanding talented backs, so they will be very difficult.”In other team selections England coach Martin Johnson recalled Mike Tindall at centre for the match against Romania and then circled the wagons around his player when he was questioned at a press conference about the Queenstown bar episode.That eruped when Tindall, who recently married Queen Elizabeth’s granddaughter Zara Phillips, and some other England players were caught on security cameras in a bar celebrating the win over Argentina in their opening World Cup match.At one stage in the video, the England centre is seen with his arms around an unidentified blonde woman who also kisses him on the top of the head.Tindall was not selected for England’s subsequent 41-10 win over Georgia, and Thursday’s team press conference in Dunedin was his first public appearance since the bar outing.The player remained tight-lipped about the affair, and when a television reporter tried to get a response from Johnson about the fall-out from the drinking session, the annoyed 2003 World Cup-winning captain cut him off by saying: “We’ve put it to bed, it’s not an issue.”Scotland coach Andy Robinson announced his team to play Argentina, in a clash expected to decide the second qualifying spot from Pool B and sprung a couple of surprises in so doing.Ruaridh Jackson will start at fly-half in place of the more experienced Dan Parks, Chris Paterson takes over from Rory Lamont at full-back and there was no place at all for skipper Alastair Kellock.“We want to get out there and have a go at Argentina. Who is our best passing 10? I think that’s Ruaridh,” said coach Andy Robinson explaining his choice for fly-half.The only game on the schedule for Thursday evening saw South Africa continue the defence of their title with a game against neighbours Namibia at Auckland’s North Harbour Stadium.The Springboks have beaten both Wales and Fiji and appear to be running into top form at just the right time as they did so successfully in France four years ago.No one is giving the 19th-ranked Namibians a hope, but Springboks forwards coach Gary Gold said pride was at stake for the Welwitschias as it shapes as their ‘final.’0Shares0000(Visited 1 times, 1 visits today)
The two managers had a tradition of sharing a glass of red after their teams’ encounters in the Premier League – though Ferguson described the first wine Mourinho ever provided him as being “like paintstripper”.Mourinho made amends with a £300 bottle of Portuguese red the next time around, and the last-16 match in the Champions League should be as mouthwatering as the wine.Ferguson told the club’s official website: “Well, it’s the tie of the round. It’s a great opportunity for our fans to see Cristiano again and also for me to meet up with Jose again – I’ll need to order some good wine!”United will hope there was a lucky omen in the draw – their one victory over Real Madrid in the European Cup was the year they first won the final, also at Wembley where next year’s final will be held, in 1968.But United have learned to fear players called Ronaldo from this club in this competition. The Brazilian striker took the honours when the clubs last faced each other in 2003, scoring a hat-trick at Old Trafford as Real went through 6-5 on aggregate.Rio Ferdinand played in the 2003 match against Real, as did Ryan Giggs, while Darren Fletcher was a substitute though he did not come on.Ferdinand welcomed the draw on Twitter saying: “Oh yes, Madrid!! What a great couple a games that’ll be!! @Cristiano see u soon bro!!”Emilio Butragueno, Real Madrid’s director of institutional relations, said it would be a special match for Ronaldo – and for the two managers.He said on www.uefa.com: “I am sure it will be a special game for him. He’s a great professional. I’m sure he’s going to do his best to help us qualify. It’s going to be very, very special for him.“It will be a thrilling experience for everyone. Manchester United are not only a great team but a great organisation known around the world.“But we know it’s going to be tough, Sir Alex Ferguson has been there over 25 years and he’s a fantastic manager – he knows how to get the best out of his players and they have top players, but we are Real Madrid and we will try our best.“I know the coaches have a great relationship. We are very happy with him [Mourinho] and I hope he’s going to lead the team to the Champions League to make our fans feel proud of the team.”The only other English side Arsenal will face last season’s beaten finalists Bayern Munich while Celtic will take on Italian champions Juventus as they look for a place in the quarter-finals.In the other matches, Barcelona will take on AC Milan, German champions Borussia Dortmund face Shakhtar Donetsk, Valencia play Paris Saint-Germain, Porto encounter Spanish side Malaga and Galatasaray will come up against Schalke.United have a slight advantage over Real in that as group winners they will get to play the second leg at home.Arsenal and Celtic, who were group runners-up, will both play the second legs away.Arsene Wenger’s Gunners last met at Bayern Munich at the same stage in 2005, with the German side progressing 3-2 on aggregate.It will mean a meeting for Lukas Podolski with one of his former clubs and he acknowledged Bayern’s Champions League pedigree.“They played in the final in 2010 and last year,” he told the club’s website. “It’s a big club but we have the chance to win against Bayern Munich.”Celtic boss Neil Lennon called his side’s draw against Juventus “a beauty” but very tough.Lennon told Sky Sports News: “Well in terms of glamour it’s a beauty. Juventus are one of the great traditional European teams. They’re current Italian champions and finished the group stage very strongly. So in terms of glamour it’s great, in terms of qualification it is going to very tough, but it could have been any of the other teams and it would have been just as tough.“It’s very exciting for me as a young manager to be in this position, to sit there and watch the draw today. It’s come very early in my managerial career but I’ll never forget today. Now we can prepare for the challenge of facing Juventus.”United will play the first leg at the Bernabeu on February 13 with the return at Old Trafford on March 5.Arsenal will play a week later with the first leg at the Emirates Stadium on February 19 and the second at the Allianz Arena in Munich on March 13.Celtic will take on Juventus at Celtic Park on February 12, with the return leg in Turin on March 6.– Football365.com0Shares0000(Visited 1 times, 1 visits today) 0Shares0000LONDON, England, December 21- Sir Alex Ferguson joked he will have to order some fine wine after Manchester United were drawn against Real Madrid in the Champions League.Ferguson’s Manchester United side were drawn against his old adversary Jose Mourinho’s Real Madrid in a Champions League contest that will see Cristiano Ronaldo return to Old Trafford for the first time.
Cst. Williams said that his aunt passed away this year from cancer, prompting him to participate. His grandmother is also a cancer survivor.“It goes to a really good cause. Camp Good Time which is a separate camp for kids suffering from childhood cancer, 20% of funds raised goes to sending kids to Camp Good Times.”The remaining 80% of funds raised goes to cancer research. The trio from Fort St. John says they have a ultimate goal of raising $30,000. FORT ST. JOHN, B.C. – Two RCMP officers and one Sheriff from Fort St. John are raising money to ride in the Cops for Cancer Tour de North.Cst. Tristan Williams, Cst. Rebecca Bojczuk and Sheriff Amy Mcguire will all take part in the event scheduled for September 12 to the 18.The ride will begin in Williams Lake and end in Dawson Creek. They will also ride through Prince George, Quesnel, Powder King, Hudson’s Hope and Fort St. John. The ride is just over 900 km.- Advertisement -The trio are at Save-On-Foods in Fort St. John this evening until 6:30 to ‘Fill the Boot’. They also are holding another fundraiser.On September 8, they will be doing a ‘Jail and Bail’.“We’re sending out warrants. They’ll be available either at the police station, court house or people can fax them in for September 8. Some of them will be ‘arrest and release’ because some obviously can’t leave their job so they can pay us and we’ll let them go or we’ll transport them to the mall if they can leave and raise what their bail is. Friends and coworkers can nominate them and then they have to work to get donations to get released.”Advertisement
Pearse Doherty has launched a vicious attack on fellow Donegal TD Dinny McGinley revealing the Fine Gael politician claims thousands of euro more in travel expenses to the Dail – despite living almost next door to the Sinn Fein man.McGinley, from Bunbeg, claims €95 per round trip more than Doherty, who lives in Derrybeg, because he claims he travels through Sligo to visit other constituents.But newly-elected TD Doherty is having none of it and has slammed McGinley’s greed. And now he has called on the veteran TD to give back the cash he has earned in recent years.Doherty fumed “I honestly think it’s incredible. We are getting around €400 for a round trip to Dublin. Why in the name of God would you want to take the more scenic route to try and increase that amount of money? It baffles me,” he said.And he added “Dinny McGinley lives within the same townland as me, we live less than a kilometre from eachother. It is appalling”.McGinley is allowed to claim €37, 106 a year in travel because he claims he lives between 330km and 360 kms from Leinster House – allowing him an extra €2,000 than Doherty. Doherty actually disputes the distance, claiming Bunbeg is only between 270kms and 300kms away from the Dail.The Sinn Fein man, who has impressed many with his outspoken and honest take on politics since arriving in the Dail last month, has actually given back €5,000 in expenses he was given as a Senator between 2007 and 2009.He argued that he was given too much money as his mileage had been calculated in a higher travel bracket which he was not entitled to.So far Deputy McGinley has refused to return any of the expenses despite calls from his neighbouring TD.Ends DOHERTY EXPOSES ‘GREED’ OF NEXT-DOOR NEIGHBOUR MCGINLEY’S TRAVEL EXPENSES was last modified: January 2nd, 2011 by StephenShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window)
Paul E. Pugh soared to heights few others experienced as a Navy pilot. His flying career spanned from the biplane era to the supersonic jet age and through three wars. By the time he retired from the Navy, Pugh was a highly decorated U.S. Navy rear admiral whose 33-year career saw him rise from a dog-fighting combat pilot to commander of the USS Kitty Hawk aircraft carrier and beyond. Pugh, whose boyhood roots were in Whittier, had been retired 32 years when he died earlier this month at his home near San Diego. He was 88. The Whittier High School graduate was one of a handful of naval aviators whose flying careers coincided with the golden age of naval aviation. He next became a project officer responsible for evaluation and development of tactics for all current jet aircraft. During the Korean War, Pugh flew with the USAF as a naval exchange pilot in the Fourth Fighter Interceptor Group. During this tour (1950-51) he became the first United Nations pilot to shoot down two Mig-15’s. He was one of only two naval aviators to score kills flying F86’s in Korea and had the added distinction of being the only naval officer to ever command a USAF squadron in combat. He went to the Patuxent River test center in 1952 to head the fighter section of the Tactical Test Division. He graduated from the Naval War College in 1955, then took command of Fighter Squadron VF-211, where he conducted the first Pacific deployment of the Sidewinder Missile. Following staff, War College and Pentagon tours, Pugh reported to the staff of commander Sixth Fleet where he served as deputy chief of staff for plans and operations until 1965. In 1966, then-Capt. Pugh took command of the USS Eldorado, flagship for the commander Amphibious Forces Pacific Fleet, participating in amphibious operations against enemy forces in South Vietnam. On July 18, 1966, he assumed command of the USS Kitty Hawk, delivering ordinance against the most heavily defended enemy targets in North Vietnam. Pugh retired from active duty in 1974 following tours as commander, Naval Forces Marianas, and commander, Naval Air Warfare Center Weapons Division, China Lake. His flight log books list pilot time in more than 150 models of aircraft. His combat awards include the Legion of Merit, two Distinguished Flying Crosses, the Bronze Star and seven Air Medals. He was a member of the Early and Pioneer Naval Aviators Association (Golden Eagles), the American Fighter Aces Association, the 4-C’s organization, and the Tailhook Association. Following retirement, Pugh spent three years with Hughes Aircraft as head of the Phoenix Missile Program in Isfahan, Iran. Born in Oklahoma in 1918, Pugh moved with his parents to Whittier in 1922. The family lived on South Comstock Avenue and his father and brother worked in nearby Mobil Oil fields. Pugh attended Whittier High from 1932 to 1936, where he played both varsity football and baseball. He was inducted into the high school’s Hall of Fame in the 1970s. While a student at Whittier High, he met his future wife, Clarine Coppock (class of ’38). After graduation Pugh attended Fullerton Junior College for two years and then transferred to Cal on a baseball scholarship. The last 28 years of his free time were spent pursuing his passion for reading, hunting, skeet shooting and all outdoor activities. He is survived by his wife of 65 years, Clarine; three children, Paul Jr. of St. Helena, Calif., Nancy Pugh Cobb and Mark Pugh of Coronado; a brother, Ollie Pugh Jr. of King City; five grandchildren; and two great-grandchildren. A date is pending for a military service at Fort Rosecrans National Cemetery. Memorial tributes may be made to the San Diego Aerospace Museum, 2001 Pan American Plaza, San Diego, CA 92101. For further information, call Jennifer Worner at (619) 234-8291. 160Want local news?Sign up for the Localist and stay informed Something went wrong. Please try again.subscribeCongratulations! You’re all set! AD Quality Auto 360p 720p 1080p Top articles1/5READ MOREWhicker: John Jackson greets a Christmas that he wasn’t sure he’d seeU.S. Navy retired Capt. Charles “Ev” Southwich was a pilot on the Kitty Hawk in 1967 when his fighter was shot down over Vietnam and he was taken prisoner for six years. But he remembered 1955, when he became wing man in Pugh’s squadron and flew with him for two years. Southwich, 75, said Pugh “was the finest fighter pilot I’ve ever known. … He was incredible in air-to-air combat as well as being the finest example I ever knew as a commanding officer.” Pugh graduated from UC Berkeley in 1940 with a degree in forestry and then joined the Navy’s cadet program. In 1941 he was commissioned an ensign and became a naval aviator. Flying as a naval fighter pilot during World War II, he completed two combat tours, first flying F6F hellcats with VF-34 in the Solomon Islands (participating in the battles of Bougainville and Rabaul) and finishing out the war as a night-fighter pilot in VF-2 aboard the aircraft carrier USS Shangri-La. After the war, he graduated with the first-ever class at a test pilot school; flew America’s first jet aircraft, the Bell P-59; piloted 10 different types of x- and y-designated (experimental/prototype) aircraft; and was the 82nd person to receive the official title of jet pilot.
The 2017 High Falls release will occur between 10am and 4pm on the following dates:June 10, July 1, July 22, August 12, and August 26.High Falls (sometimes called Cullowhee Falls) is located below the dam on Lake Glenville. The trail to view the falls was originally created for kayakers daring to face the challenging Class IV and V rapids that occur as the dam releases take place.On a typical day, the double 150ft falls are serene as they cascade into the Tuckaseegee Gorge below (shown). As the dam releases, the falls become an impressive force of raging water. Remember: Safety First! Don’t stand under the falls as the releases quickly and there is little chance of dodging it.
Do keep in mind that artists are subject to change.Eat to the Beat concerts take place in the America Gardens Theatre at 5:30 p.m., 6:45 p.m., and 8:00 p.m. The show is included in your theme park admission.I have to say that these Eat to the Beat concerts are always a lot of fun, and you can tell the performers are excited to be on stage performing at Walt Disney World. Which artist are you most excited to see? Share This!©Rikki NiblettWith this year’s Epcot Food and Wine Festival taking place even earlier than ever before (the event kicks off August 31 and lasts through November 13), we are that much closer to the event. I mean it’s literally happening in almost two months time, so it will be here before we know it!Today, we have the information for who will be performing at this year’s Eat to the Beat Concert Series. During this concert series, bands and solo artists perform some of their most popular songs nightly. Oh and since there’s more days of the festival than ever before, that means there are more new performers too! This year, there will be 11 new performers to the Eat to the Beat series including Jazz Legend Kenny G, and pop superstars like 10,000 Maniacs and Squeeze.Of course, there will be some familiar faces at this year’s festival too. Artists like Taylor Dane, Tiffany, STARSHIP, Sugar Ray, Boyz II Men, and my personal favorite, Hanson will all return. (I’m going to miss Hanson AGAIN!!! ARGH!)This year’s schedule is as follows:8/31 – 9/1 – Delta Rae (“Bottom of the River”)9/2 – 9/3 – The Hooters (“And We Danced”) NEW!9/4 – 9/5 – Baha Men (“Who Let the Dogs Out”) NEW!9/6 – 9/7 – Fuel (“Shimmer”)9/8 -9/10 – STARSHIP starring Mickey Thomas (“We Built This City”)9/11 – 9/12 – Lauren Alaina (“Road Less Traveled”) NEW!9/13 – 9/15 – Plain White T’s (“Hey There Delilah”)9/16 – 9/17 – Sister Hazel (“All For You”)9/18 – 9/20- Air Supply (“All Out Of Love”)9/21 – 9/22 – David Cook (“Light On”)9/23 – 9/24 – Everclear (“Santa Monica”)9/25 – 9/27 – Sugar Ray (“Every Morning)9/28 – 9/29 – .38 Special (“Hold On Loosely”)9/30 – 10/1 – Mark Wills (“19 Somethin’”) NEW!10/2 – 10/3 – American Authors (“Best Day of My Life”) NEW!10/4 – 10/5 – Christopher Cross (“Sailing”)10/6 – 10/8 – Devon Allman (“Rugged ad Dirty”) NEW!10/9 – 10/11 – Dennis DeYoung: The music of STYX (“Come Sail Away”)10/12 – 10/13 – Taylor Dayne (“Tell It To My Heart”)10/14 – 10/15 – Jeffrey Osborne (“On The Wings of Love”)10/16 – 10/17 – Postmodern Jukebox (Various Hits) NEW!10/18 – 10/20 – 10,000 Maniacs (“Because the Night”) NEW!10/21 – 10/22 – Toad The Wet Sprocket (“Walk on the Ocean”)10/23 – 10/24 – Kenny G (“Songbird”) NEW!10/25 – 10/26 – Billy Ocean (“Get Outta My Dreams, Get Into My Car”)10/27 – 10/29 – Tiffany (“I Think We’re Alone Now”)10/30 – 11/1 – Hanson (“MMMBop”)11/2 – 11/3 – Blue October (“Into The Ocean”) NEW!11/4 – 11/5 – Living Colour (“Cult of Personality”)11/6 – 11/8 – Boyz II Men (“End of the Road”)11/9 – 11/11 – Big Bad Voodoo Daddy (“Go Daddy-O”)11/12 – 11/13 – Squeeze (“Tempted”) NEW!
Related Posts Why Tech Companies Need Simpler Terms of Servic… New for some, not seen by all – yet – Google has added “Shared By” and “Recent Update” elements to search result pages. Search Engine Land’s Danny Sullivan points out that some people’s results are now coming up with socially-engaging teasers such as “shared by 5+” next to news stories. Even more intriguing, a blue “recent updates” box is appearing to offer results from Twitter, MySpace, Facebook and more.As Sullivan notes, it’s quite different than the social search partnership Bing and Facebook rolled out last week. In Bing’s new social search results, they only show users what’s been shared by Facebook connections. Google, clearly flexing its search muscles, is looking to extend users’ social search reach much further.Earlier this month, Google tested Twitter integration with “friends” to news results, but the inclusion of multiple social networks is looking like a bold and significant change. We saw that Google Social Search launched in Labs last October, so this development isn’t coming as a complete shocker for everyone. But where they’re going with it is interesting to observe. In Sullvan’s post, he drills into what people are seeing when they follow the breadcrumb trail, providing a glimpse of what could be just the beginning of Google’s move toward becoming a force in the social sphere: becoming a social utility. Clicking on the “Shared by” links takes you to Google Realtime search, where you are shown all the people who are sharing that particular news story through services such as Twitter, Facebook and MySpace. Tags:#news#web violet blue A Web Developer’s New Best Friend is the AI Wai… Top Reasons to Go With Managed WordPress Hosting 8 Best WordPress Hosting Solutions on the Market In The Wake Of Bing & Facebook, Google Web Search Tests Getting More Social (searchengineland.com)
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Researchers discovered the mind-altering kit in the Cueva del Chileno rock shelter, high in the Bolivian Andes. In 2010, Miller joined the team to help chemically analyze the items, which had been nearly perfectly preserved in the arid conditions of the 4000-meter-high mountains. Radiocarbon dating revealed that the outer bag was made around 1000 C.E. Next, Miller carefully unwound the fox snout pouch and emptied its dust and debris onto a piece of aluminum foil. Using a technique frequently used in modern illicit drug testing called liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, she and her fellow researchers hunted for chemical signatures in the sample. They identified at least five psychoactive substances: cocaine, benzoylecgonine, bufotenine, harmine, and dimethyltryptamine.Harmine and dimethyltryptamine are the main ingredients in ayahuasca, used ceremonially for centuries by indigenous South Americans. Miller says their presence alongside the snuffing tube and tablet may mean that people inhaled these chemicals long before they were brewed into a beverage. Juan V. Albarracin-Jordan and José M. Capriles By Michael PriceMay. 6, 2019 , 3:00 PM When José Capriles arrived in 2008 at the Cueva del Chileno rock shelter, nestled on the western slopes of Bolivia’s Andes, he didn’t know what he would find within. Sweeping aside layers of fresh and ancient llama dung, he found the remains of an ancient burial site: stone markers suggesting a body had once been interred there and a small leather bag cinched with a string. Inside was a collection of ancient drug paraphernalia—bone spatulas to crush the seeds of plants with psychoactive compounds, wooden tablets inlaid with gemstones to serve as a crushing surface, a wooden snuffing tube with a carved humanoid figure, and a small pouch stitched together from the snouts of three foxes.Now, more than a decade later, Capriles—an anthropologist at Pennsylvania State University in State College—and colleagues have discovered that the 1000-year-old bag contains the most varied combination of psychoactive compounds found at a South American site, including cocaine and the primary ingredients in a hallucinogenic tea called ayahuasca. The contents suggest the users were well versed in the psychoactive properties of the substances, and also that they sourced their goods from well-established trade routes.“Whoever had this bag of amazing goodies … would have had to travel great distances to acquire those plants,” says Melanie Miller, lead author of a new study on the discovery and a bioarchaeologist at the University of Otago in Dunedin, New Zealand. “[Either that], or they had really extensive exchange networks.”Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*)Nearly every culture on Earth has dabbled with consciousness- and perception-altering substances. Indigenous groups from Central and South America have used hallucinogens such as peyote and psilocybin mushrooms during rituals and religious ceremonies for thousands of years. Archaeologists have uncovered hundreds of items that provide a glimpse into these ancient practices, but few are as complete as the Bolivian find. A snuffing tube was used to inhale ground-up plant matter with psychoactive compounds. Archaeologists find richest cache of ancient mind-altering drugs in South America A pouch containing psychoactive compounds was stitched together from the snouts of three Andean foxes. Juan V. Albarracin-Jordan and José M. Capriles Juan V. Albarracin-Jordan and José M. Capriles The mixture’s origins also offer clues to the trade routes of the people who occupied the high plains. Several of the compounds come from the plant genus Anadenanthera—also known as vilca, cebil, or yopo—which grows widely through South America, but not in this region of the Andes. Similarly, the likely source of the harmine is a lowland Amazonian species.Miller says it’s possible that the mixture of compounds was unique to the region. The fact that at least two of the ingredients are known to be used in tandem in ayahuasca raises the possibility that this shaman was selecting plant combinations for specific mind-altering effects, they report today in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. “Maybe they were mixing multiple things together because they realized when they’re combined, they have a whole different set of experiences,” Miller says.When indigenous South Americans began to brew ayahuasca is still a major mystery, says Christine VanPool, an anthropologist at the University of Missouri in Columbia who wasn’t involved in the work. She’s intrigued by the idea they may first have discovered its properties by inhaling its key compounds. Shamans “say they’ve had [ayahuasca] for a very long time. So in some ways, I wasn’t surprised,” she says. But because archaeological evidence has been lacking, the new find is “exciting.”